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  1. Weekly Reading 7 items
    1. All students are expected to contribute to seminar discussions and therefore it essential that every student reads AT LEAST three articles and/or book chapters in preparation for each seminar.

       

      Please note that there are no 'essential' readings identified for each week on this module; rather, you should select your own readings from the list. This will encourage a wider variety of perspectives and more vibrant discussion in the seminar room.

       

      However, strongly recommended readings are marked with an asterisk. The reading lists are ordered alphabetically and not in order of significance.

       

      I have also listed a series of questions under each week's subject heading. These questions should be used to help focus your thoughts while you prepare for each seminar.

       

    2. Given that the module covers contemporary politics and the situation is changing fairly quickly in some of the countries covered it is important to keep up to date with international news.

       

      For transitional justice and reconciliation efforts, useful sites include:

  2. Background Reading 24 items
    1. If you wish to do some background reading on African politics, recommended introductory and background texts include:

    2. The State in Africa: The Politics of the Belly - J-F. Bayart 1993

      Book further reading

    3. Ethnicity and Democracy in Africa 2004

      Book further reading

    4. The Making of Contemporary Africa: The Development of African Society since 1800 - B. Freund 1998

      Book further reading

    5. Struggles for Citizenship in Africa - B. Manby c2009

      Book further reading

    6. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism - M. Mamdani 1996

      Book further reading

    7. An Introduction to African Politics - A. Thomson 2010

      Book recommended Strongly recommended

    8. If you wish to learn more about the individual countries covered in this module, recommendations include:

    9. Uganda 2 items
    10. Rwanda 3 items
      1. Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda - R. Dallaire 2004

        Book further reading

      2. "Leave None to tell the Story": Genocide in Rwanda - A. Des Forges c1999

        Book further reading

      3. The Rwanda Crisis, 1959-1994: History of a Genocide - G. Prunier 1995

        Book further reading

    11. Congo 2 items
      1. Africa's World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe - G. Prunier 2009

        Book further reading

      2. In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in the Congo - M. Wrong 2001

        Book further reading

    12. Sudan and South Sudan 2 items
      1. The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars - D. Johnson c2011

        Book further reading

    13. Kenya 4 items
      1. Kenya: Between Hope and Despair, 1963-2011 - D. Branch 2011

        Book recommended Strongly Recommended

      2. It's our Turn to Eat: The Story of a Kenyan Whistleblower - M. Wrong 2010

        Book further reading

  3. Novels 23 items
    1. If you are a keen reader then there are some good books (both fiction and non-fiction) that would complement the module and that are easy to get hold of. A select list includes:

    2. Half of a Yellow Sun - C. Adichie 2006

      Book further reading

    3. A Country Unmasked - A. Boraine 2000

      Book further reading

    4. Softly Calls the Serengeti - Frank Coates 2012

      Book further reading

    5. What is the What: The Autobiography of Valentino Achak Deng - D. Eggers c2006

      Book further reading

    6. The Last King of Scotland - G. Foden 2010

      Book further reading

    7. We Wish to Inform you that Tomorrow We will be Killed with our Families - P. Gourevitch 1999

      Book further reading

    8. Machete Season - J. Hatzfeld 2005

      Book further reading

    9. Life Laid Bare - J. Hatzfeld c2006

      Book further reading

    10. The Antelope's Strategy - J. Hatzfeld 2010

      Book further reading

    11. The Rebels' Hour - L. Joris 2008

      Book further reading

    12. The Poisonwood Bible - B. Kingsolver 2000

      Book further reading

    13. Country of my Skull - A. Krog 1999

      Book further reading

    14. Waiting - G. Kyomuhendo 2007

      Book further reading

    15. The drowned and the saved - P. Levi 1989

      Book further reading

    16. While the Sun is Above Us - Melanie Schnell

      Book further reading

    17. The River Between - N. wa Thiongʼo 1965

      Book further reading

    18. Weep Not, Child - N. wa Thiongʼo 1964

      Book further reading

    19. Devil on the Cross - N. wa Thiongʼo 1982

      Book further reading

    20. A Grain of Wheat - N. wa Thiongʼo 2008

      Book further reading

    21. Petals of Blood - N. wa Thiongʼo 2002

      Book further reading

    22. No Future without Forgiveness - D. Tutu 1999

      Book further reading

    23. The In-Between World of Vikram Lall - M. G. Vassanji 2005

      Book further reading

  4. Journals 4 items
    1. Many academic journals are available in electronic form via the university catalogue, as well as in hard copy in the library. The following journals will prove particularly useful:

  5. Term 1: Week 1: Understanding Ethnicity and Violence 28 items
    1. Seminar Questions 1 item
        1. What is an ethnic group? What is the difference between an 'ethnic group' and a 'tribe'?
        2. Is it useful to use the term 'tribe'? Should the term 'ethnic group' be used instead
        3. What is autochthony? How does it relate to ethnic identies and violence?
        4. What constitutes violence?

    2. Reading: a) Understanding Ethnicity: 12 items
      1. A Modern History of Tanganyika - J. Iliffe 1979

        Book further reading Chapter 10: The Creation of Tribes. Pages: 318-341

      2. Diversity and discord: Ethnicity, horizontal inequalities and conflict in Ghana and Nigeria - Arnim Langer, Abdul Raufu Mustapha, Frances Stewart 05/2009

        Article further reading

      3. Ethnicity in Ghana: The Limits of Invention 2000

        Book further reading Introduction

      4. The Ideology of 'Tribalism' - A. Mafeje 1971

        Article further reading

      5. Legitimacy and the State in Twentieth-century Africa 1993

        Book recommended The Invention of Tradition Revisited, T. Ranger

      6. An Introduction to African Politics - A. Thomson 2010

        Book further reading Chapter 4: Ethnicity and religion: 'tribes', gods and political identity. Pages: 60-83

      7. The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa 1989

        Book further reading Especially the introduction, but all chapters are useful

    3. b) Autochthony and the Politics of Belonging 7 items
      1. The Perils of Belonging: Autochthony, Citizenship, and Exclusion in Africa and Europe - P. Geschiere 2009

        Book further reading

      2. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism - M. Mamdani 1996

        Book further reading Chapter 2: Decentralized Despotism. Pages: 37-61. Chapter 3: Indirect Rule: The Politics of Decentralized Despotism. Pages: 62-108

    4. c) Understanding Violence 8 items
      1. Violence, Peace, and Peace Research - J. Galtung 1969

        Article recommended Strongly Recommended

      2. Structural and Direct Violence - J. Galtung, T. Hoivik 1971

        Article further reading

      3. Cultural Violence - J. Galtung 1990

        Article further reading

      4. Understanding Ethnic Violence - R. Petersen 2002

        Book further reading Introduction

  6. Term 1: Week 2: Understanding Conflict: Grand Narratives and Local Struggles 64 items
    1. Read AT LEAST three of the items listed below and be prepared to discuss them in the seminar.

       

      Please select your readings from different sections of the reading list. However, please note that different sections reflect a broad categorisation and that there is much cross-over between the different approaches/schools.

    2. a) Political/Cultural 8 items
      1. * The Clash of Civilizations? - S. Huntington 1993

        Article recommended Strongly Recommended

      2. Understanding Recent African Wars - Krijn Peters, P. Richards

        Article recommended

      3. No peace, no war: an anthropology of contemporary armed conflicts - Bernhard Helander 2005

        Book further reading Read: 'New War: An Ethnographic Approach.'

      4. War: Back to the future. - Simons, Anna 1999

        Article further reading

    3. b) Political/Geo-political 6 items
      1. New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era - M. Kaldor 2012

        Book further reading

      2. The New Geography of Conflict - M. Klare 2001

        Document further reading

    4. c) Political/Historical 6 items
      1. Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia - J. Bertrand 2004

        Book further reading Introduction

      2. African Guerrillas: Raging against the Machine 2007

        Book further reading

      3. African Guerrillas 1998

        Book further reading Introduction

      4. Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War - S. Kaufman 2001

        Book further reading Especially Chapter 1

      5. The Rwanda Crisis, 1959-1994: History of a Genocide - G. Prunier 1995

        Book further reading

    5. d) Political/Economic 22 items
      1. Greed and Grievance in Civil War - P. Collier, A. Hoeffler 2001

        Document further reading

      2. * Greed and Grievance in Civil War - P. Collier, A. Hoeffler 2004

        Article recommended Strongly Recommended

      3. Understanding Civil War: Vol 1 Africa 2005

        Book further reading Papers also available on World Bank web site

      4. The real politics of the Horn of Africa: money, war and the business of power - Alex De Waal 2015

        Book further reading

      5. The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars - D. Keen 1998

        Book further reading

      6. Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone - D. Keen 2005

        Book further reading Chapters 3 and 4

      7. Liberalization and Conflict - D. Keen 2005

        Article further reading

      8. Rejoinder to Stephen Ellis - T. Mkandawire 2003

        Article further reading

      9. Warlord Politics and African States - W. Reno 1999

        Book further reading Introduction

    6. e) Political/Political Change and Democratization 7 items
      1. I say to you: Ethnic Politics and the Kalenjin in Kenya - G. Lynch 2011

        Book further reading Chapter 5: Democratization and the 'Kalenjin Vote', 1990-2002. Chapter 6: Multiparty politics and the 'Ethnic Factor', 2002-2008

      2. The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing - M. Mann 2005

        Book further reading Chapter 1: The Argument. Pages 1-33

      3. From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict - J. Snyder c2000

        Book further reading Chapter 1

    7. f) Political/Psychological 2 items
      1. Understanding Ethnic Violence - R. Petersen 2002

        Book further reading Introduction

    8. g) Some Examples of Hybrid Approaches 12 items
      NB: Most of the articles listed above can be considered (at least to a certain extent) as ‘hybrid’
      1. Civil War is not a Stupid Thing: Accounting for Violence in Developing Countries - C. Cramer 2006

        Book further reading

      2. Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War - J. Fearon, D. Laitin 2003

        Article further reading

      3. The Logic of Violence in Civil War - S. Kalyvas 2006

        Book further reading

      4. Rejoinder to Stephen Ellis. - Mkandawire, Thandika 2003

        Article further reading

      5. The roots of African conflicts: the causes & costs - Alfred G. Nhema, Paul Tiyambe Zeleza 2008

        Book further reading

      6. The Political Economy of Kenya's Crisis. - Mueller, Susanne D. 2008

        Article further reading

  7. Term 1: Week 3: Northern Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army 17 items
    NB: This topic focuses on the LRA in northern Uganda, rather than on the latter years of the LRA in Sudan, Congo, and Central African Republic.
    1. Seminar Questions 1 item
      1. 1) Why did the LRA take up arms? What were its aims? ? While based in northern Uganda, did the LRA's aims change over time? If so, how and why?

        2) How can one best explain the tactics used by the Ugandan government and the LRA?

        3) How can one best explain the longevity of the conflict?

    2. Reading 16 items
      1. For those interested in the LRA beyond northern Uganda suggested readings include: 3 items
        1. The Lord's Resistance Army in Sudan: A history and overview - Mareike Schomerus, Emily Walmsley 2007

          Document further reading

  8. Term 1: Week 4: Rwanda: Genocide and its Causes 27 items
    1. Seminar Questions 1 item
      1. 1) How can one best explain the 1994 Rwanda genocide?

        2) Was the Rwanda genocide the result of greed or grievance?

        3) What is the role of the Rwandan Patriotic Front in the genocide narrative?

        4) Could international intervention have prevented the genocide?

    2. Reading 26 items
      1. The Path of a Genocide: The Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire 2000

        Book further reading Hate Radio in Rwanda, F. Chalk

      2. Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda - R. Dallaire 2004

        Book further reading

      3. "Leave None to tell the Story": Genocide in Rwanda - A. Des Forges c1999

        Book further reading

      4. Rwanda and Genocide in the Twentieth Century - A. Destexhe 1995

        Book further reading

      5. Violence, Political Culture and Development in Africa 2006

        Book further reading Debating the Rwandan Genocide. N. Eltringham

      6. We Wish to Inform you that Tomorrow We will be Killed with our Families - P. Gourevitch 1999

        Book further reading

      7. * Explaining the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda - H. Hintjens 1999

        Article recommended Strongly Recommended

      8. Rwanda's Popular Genocide: A Perfect Storm - Jean Paul Kimonyo, Wandia Njoya 2016

        Book further reading

      9. The role of France in the Rwandan genocide - Daniela Kroslak 2007

        Book further reading

      10. Rwanda in Retrospect - A. Kuperman 2000

        Article further reading

      11. Rwanda: The Rationality of Genocide - R. Lemarchand 1995

        Article further reading

      12. A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide - L. Melvern 2009

        Book further reading

      13. Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide - L. Melvern c2006

        Book further reading

      14. Background to Genocide: Rwanda - C. Newbury 1995

        Article further reading

      15. Violence and Belonging: The Quest for Identity in Post-colonial Africa - V. Broch-Due 2005

        Book further reading Escape from Genocide: the politics of identity in Rwanda’s massacres, J. Potter

      16. * The Rwanda Crisis, 1959-1994: History of a Genocide - G. Prunier 1995

        Book recommended Strongly Recommended

      17. The Path of a Genocide: The Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire 2000

        Book further reading Opération Turquoise: A Humanitarian Escape from a Political Dead End, G. Prunier

      18. Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Rwanda - P. Uvin 1998

        Book further reading

  9. Term 1: Week 5: Eastern Congo: From Genocide to Continental War? 33 items
    NB: The focus will be primarily on the first (1996-1997) and second (1998-2003) Congo wars, rather than on subsequent violence/instability.
    1. Seminar Questions 1 item
      1. 1) Was ethnicity or resources the primary driver of conflict in the DRC?

        2) What role did DRC's neighbours play in the violence?

        3) What impact did the West have on violence in the DRC?

         

        4) At what level(s) – community, national, regional, international – did/does conflict resolution need to occur?

    2. Reading 32 items
      1. The Path of a Genocide: The Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire 2000

        Book further reading The Rwandan Genocide and the Collapse of Mobutu’s Kleptocracy, A. Gnamo

      2. Civil Wars In the Democratic Republic of Congo, 1960-2010 - Emizet François Kisangani

        Book further reading

      3. Struggles for Citizenship in Africa - B. Manby c2009

        Book further reading Pages: 66-80

      4.  

        Mugangu, S. (2004) Integration of Armed Groups in the Reconstruction Process of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

        Journal of Human Rights and Peace in the Great Lakes Region 1 (1): 171-186

         

        Article, Author and Journal unavailable to reference in catalogue or from Internet.

      5. The Democratic Republic of Congo: economic dimensions of war and peace - Michael Wallace Nest, François Grignon, Emizet F. Kisangani 2006

        Book further reading

      6. The Great Lakes Crisis - G. Prunier 1997

        Article further reading Warwick doesn’t have access to this article. You can try requesting this from another library by clicking the online resource button.

      7. Africa's World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe - G. Prunier 2009

        Book further reading

      8. Dancing in the glory of monsters: the collapse of the Congo and the great war of Africa - Jason K. Stearns 2012

        Book further reading

      9. Congo - Thomas Turner 2013

        Book further reading

      10. Kivu's Intractable Security Conundrum - K. Vlassenroot, T. Raeymaekers 01/07/2009

        Article further reading

      11. Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority - W. Zartman 1995

        Book further reading Introduction: Posing the Problem of State Collapse, W. Zartman

  10. Term 1: Week 7: Sudan I: Civil War, Oil and Secession 36 items
    1. Seminar Questions 1 item
      1. 1) How can one best explain the onset and duration of Sudan's civil war?

        2) Did the first and second civil wars have different causes?

        3) What impact did the discovery of oil have upon the southern Sudan conflict?

        4) Are the two civil wars best understood in terms of race, religion, regionalism, or something else?

         

    2. Reading 35 items
      1. Sudan: The Human Price of Oil - Amnesty International 2000

        Document further reading

      2. War in Sudan: An Analysis of the Conflict. - A. De Waal 1990

        Book further reading

      3. The real politics of the Horn of Africa: money, war and the business of power - Alex De Waal 2015

        Book further reading

      4. Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights - Human Rights Watch 2003

        Document further reading

      5. Democracy on Hold - Human Rights Watch 2010

        Document further reading

      6. The Southern Sudan - D. Johnson 1988

        Book further reading

      7. African Guerrillas 1998

        Book further reading The Sudan People’s Liberation Army and the problem of factionalism, D. Johnson

      8. The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars - D. Johnson c2011

        Book further reading

      9. Sudan: race, religion, and violence - Jok Madut Jok 2015

        Book further reading

      10. Sudan's Perfect War - Randolph Martin 2002

        Article further reading

      11. Strife and secession in Sudan - Medani, Khalid Mustafa 2011

        Article further reading

      12. Civil War in the Sudan: From Ethnic to Ecological Conflict - M. Suliman 1993

        Article further reading this article is available only in print format in the library

      13. For those interested in more recent developments in the ‘new’ South Sudan, suggested readings include: 6 items
        1. Briefing: The crisis in South Sudan. - Johnson, Douglas H. 2014

          Article further reading

  11. Term 1: Week 8: Sudan II: Darfur - The Slow Genocide? 24 items
    1. Seminar Questions 1 item
      1. 1) What caused the conflict in Darfur?

        2) Has the conflict in Darfur ever constituted a genocide? Why have some NGOs and international agencies been reluctant to use the label 'genocide' in the context of Darfur?

        3) How can one best explain the longevity of the conlfict in Darfur? And has the conflict changed significantly over time?

         

        4) How effective has the international peacekeeping and justice response been?

    2. Reading 23 items
      1. Darfur: The Long Road to Disaster - M. Burr, R. Collins c2006

        Book further reading

      2. Darfur: A Short History of a Long War - A. de Waal, J. Flint 2005 (electronic resource)

        Book further reading

      3. Counter-Insurgency on the Cheap - A. de Waal 2004

        Article further reading

      4. Gender-Based Violence Against Men and Boys in Darfur. - Gabrielle Ferrales, Hollie Nyseth Brehm, Suzy Mcelrath 2016

        Article further reading

      5. Violence, Political Culture and Development in Africa 2006

        Book further reading Peace, Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity in Sudan, D. Johnson

      6. * Sudan’s Darfur: Is it Genocide? - N. Kasfir 2005

        Article recommended Strongly Recommended. Warwick doesn’t have access to this article. You can try requesting this from another library by clicking the online resource button.

      7. * The Politics of Naming: Genocide, Civil War, Insurgency - M. Mamdani 2007

        Document recommended Strongly Recommended

      8. Saviors and survivors : Darfur, politics, and the War on terror - Mahmood Mamdani

        Book further reading

      9. Darfur: A 21st Century Genocide - G. Prunier 2008

        Book further reading

      10. Darfur and the Genocide Debate - S. Straus 2005

        Article further reading

  12. Term 1: Week 9: Kenya I: Multi-party Elections and Political Violence 1992-2017 38 items
    NB: Given the time period covered, essay/exam questions will provide an option of focusing on one election of your choice, or on multiple elections.
    1. Seminar Questions 1 item
      1. 1) What is the connection, if any, between democratisation and ethnic conflict in modern Kenya?

        2) Were Kenyans right to use the term 'ethnic cleansing' to describe the electoral violence of the 1990s?

        3) Why did violence follow Kenya's elections of December 2007?

        4) Were the 2013 and 2017 elections successful/peaceful? Are there prospects for violence in future elections?

    2. Reading: a) ‘Ethnic Clashes’, 1991-1993 9 items
      1. From promise to practice: strengthening UN capacities for the prevention of violent conflict - Chandra Lekha Sriram 2003

        Book further reading Quiet Diplomacy and Recurring “Ethnic Clashes” in Kenya, S. Brown This book is not currently available in Warwick Library

      2. I say to you: Ethnic Politics and the Kalenjin in Kenya - G. Lynch 2011

        Book further reading Chapter 5: Democratization and the 'Kalenjin Vote', 1990-2002

      3. Undercurrents of Ethnic Conflict in Kenya - J. Oucho 2002

        Book further reading

    3. b) Election-related Violence, 1997 2 items
      1. Out for the Count: The 1997 General Elections and Prospects for Democracy in Kenya 2001

        Book further reading Politics of Marionettes: Extra-legal Violence and the 1997 Elections in Kenya, P. Kagwanja. Pages: 72-100

      2. Out for the Count: The 1997 General Elections and Prospects for Democracy in Kenya 2001

        Book further reading Fresh Killings: The Njoro and Laikipia Violence in the 1997 Kenya Election Aftermath, M. Rutten

    4. c) Post-election Violence, 2007-8 20 items
      1. Kenya: back from the brink? - Michael Chege 2008

        Article further reading

      2. The Kenyan Commission of Inquiry into Post-Election Violence - International Center for Transitional Justice 2008

        Document further reading

      3. * I say to you: Ethnic Politics and the Kalenjin in Kenya - G. Lynch 2011

        Book recommended Strongly Recommended. Chapter 6: Multiparty politics and the 'Ethnic Factor', 2002-2008

      4. Bent on self-destruction: The Kibaki regime in Kenya - Godwin R. Murunga, Shadrack W. Nasong'o 01/2006

        Article further reading

      5. More than political tools - Mutuma Ruteere 11/2011

        Article further reading

    5. d) 2013: Peace or Peace-ocracy 6 items
      1. Democracy and its discontents: understanding Kenya's 2013 elections - Nic Cheeseman, Gabrielle Lynch, Justin Willis 02/01/2014

        Article further reading

      2. Elections and Violent Conflict in Kenya: Making prevention stick - Claire Elder, Susan Stigant, Jonas Claes 2014

        Document further reading

      3. Choosing peace over democracy - James D. Long, Karuti Kanyinga, Karen E. Feree, Clark Gibson 2013

        Article further reading

  13. Term 1: Week 10: Violence in Comparative Perspective 1 item
    1. Seminar Preparation 1 item
      1. Return to readings from previous weeks (particularly week 2) and assess the benefits and weaknesses of applying particular theoretical approaches to different conflicts.

  14. Term 2: Week 1: Transitional Justice and Reconciliation: Tools and Theories 26 items
    1. Seminar Questions 1 item
      1. 1) What is transitional justice?

        2) What are the common transitional justice 'tools' or mechanisms? What are the likely strengths and weaknesses of these tools?

        3) What constitutes reconciliation?

        4) Who needs to be reconciled in the confllicts studied? i.e. is it individuals, communities (ethnic, religious, geographic etc), nations, states, regions etc?

        5) How might one go about fostering reconciliation in the cases studied?

    2. Reading 25 items
      1. Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies - J. Lederach 2002

        Book further reading

      2. Gendered peace: women's struggles for post-war justice and reconciliation - Donna Pankhurst, United Nations Research Institute for Social Development c2008

        Book further reading

      3. Agonism in divided societies. - Andrew Schaap 2006

        Article further reading

      4. Localizing transitional justice: interventions and priorities after mass violence 2010

        Book further reading Introduction: Localizing Transitional Justice, R. Shaw, L. Waldorf.

      5. Peace versus Justice? The Dilemma of Transitional Justice in Africa 2010

        Book further reading

      6. Justice in Transition - Kimberly Theidon 06/2006

        Article further reading

  15. Term 2: Week 2: Rwanda I: The Benefits and Shortcomings of an International Criminal Tribunal 17 items
    1. Seminar Questions 1 item
      1. 1) Was the ICTR a good or bad thing?

        2) What contributions has the ICTR made to justice and reconciliation in Rwanda?

         

        3) What contributions (if any) has the ICTR made to justice and reconciliation more broadly?

    2. Reading 16 items
      1. The ICTR Contribution to National Reconciliation. - Francois-Xavier Nsanzuwera, 2005

        Article further reading

  16. Term 2: Week 3: Rwanda II: Justice 'on the grass' and the Case of Gacaca 21 items
    1. Seminar Questions 1 item
      1. 1) What are the pro's and con's of the gacaca courts in post-genocide Rwanda?

        2) What are the advantages and disadvantages of focusing on punitive justice in post-genocide Rwanda?

        3) Can there ever be meaningful justice for the crime of genocide?

        4) Is reconciliation possible in Rwanda after the genocide? Is it compatible with meaningful justice?

    2. Reading 20 items
      1. Rwanda – Gacaca: A Question of Justice - Amnesty International 2002

        Document further reading

      2. Retributive Justice: The Gacaca Courts in Rwanda - A. Corey, S. Joireman 2004

        Article further reading

      3. Assessing the Rwanda Experiment: Popular Perceptions of Gacaca in Its Final Phase. - Joanna Pozen, Richard Neugebauer, Joseph Ntaganira 2014

        Article further reading

  17. Term 2: Week 4: Rwanda III: The Politics of Remembering and Forgetting 30 items
    1. Seminar Questions 1 item
      1. 1) What role can memoralisation, memory and art play in transitional justice in reconciliation in theory and practice?

        2) How are atrocities such as the Rwandan genocide best remembered and/or memorialised?

        3) Why might some people choose to remember, and others to forget?

         

        4) Should people be allowed to forget?

    2. Reading 29 items
      1. Developmental patrimonialism? The case of Rwanda. - David Booth, Frederick Golooba-Mutebi 2012

        Article further reading

      2. Seven Types of Forgetting - P. Connerton 2008

        Article further reading

      3. Thoughts from some other country case studies: 8 items
        1. Theorizing transitional justice 2015

          Book further reading Read: Bahun, S. (2015) 'Transitional justice and the arts: reflections on the field'. pp. 153-166.

        2. Alem Bekagn: The African Union's accidental human rights memorial. - AlexIbreck De Waal, Rachel Ibreck 2013

          Article further reading

  18. Term 2: Week 5: The ICC in Africa (Uganda, Eastern Congo, Sudan and Kenya) 36 items
    1. Seminar Questions 1 item
      1. 1) Why was the ICC established, and to what extent (if any) has it met founding objectives?

        2) What are the strengths and weaknesses of the ICC?

        3) Assess the role of the ICC with reference to one country case study.

        4) What (if any) lessons has the ICC learnt to date? To what extent have these lessons influenced its development and working practices?

        5) Should the ICC be an instrument of last resort?

    2. Reading 35 items
      1. a) General (plus DRC & Sudan) 12 items
        1. * Courting Conflict? Justice, Peace and the ICC in Africa 2008

          Document recommended Strongly Recommended. Read: De Waal, Alex (2008) Darfur, the Court and Khartoum: The politics of state non-cooperation

        2. Justice denied: the reality of the International Criminal Court - David Hoile 2014

          Book further reading

        3. Peace versus Justice? The Dilemma of Transitional Justice in Africa 2010

          Book further reading Chapter 17: The International Criminal Tribunal in Darfur, D. Ntsebeza. Pages: 331-346

      2. b) Kenya 15 items
        1. Situation in the Republic of Kenya - Charles Chernor Jalloh 2012

          Article further reading

        2. Kenya's 2013 general election - Twaweza Communications, Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung 2015

          Book further reading Read: Kagwanja, Peter (2015) The geopolitics of international justice: ICC and Kenya’s 2013 presidential election.

        3. The ICC Intervention in Kenya - G. Lynch, M. Zgonec-Rozej 2013

          Document further reading

      3. c) Uganda 7 items
      4. International Criminal Court

        Website further reading It’s also worth going through the ICC website for updates on the different cases

  19. Term 2: Week 7: Traditional Justice Mechanisms: Ritual and mato oput in Northern Uganda 12 items
    1. Seminar Questions 1 item
      1. 1) What are the strengths and weaknesses of mato oput? What can it achieve? And what can it not achieve in terms of justice and reconciliation?

        2) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using such 'traditional' mechanisms?

        3) What would be the alternatives to mato oput in northern Uganda?

        4) What is the importance of ritual and performance in such a context?

    2. Reading 11 items
      1. * Courting Conflict? Justice, Peace and the ICC in Africa 2008

        Document recommended Strongly Recommended. Chapter 6: Ritual (ab)use? Problems with traditional justice in Northern Uganda, T. Allen. Pages: 47-54

      2. Localizing transitional justice: interventions and priorities after mass violence 2010

        Book further reading Reconciliation grown bitter? War, retribution, and ritual action in northern Uganda, S. Finnstrom. This book is not currently available in Warwick Library

      3. Peace and Conflict in Africa 2008

        Book further reading Chapter 2: African indigenous and endogenous approaches to peace and conflict resolution, T. Muriithi. Pages: 16-30

  20. Term 2: Week 8: The Value and Role of Truth-Telling: Truth Commissions in Comparative Perspective 54 items
    1. Seminar Questions 1 item
      1. 1) Why have a truth commission?

        2) Have truth commissions lived up to expectations? And if not, is this because expectations are unrealistic OR because of weaknesses with individual truth commissions and/or the idea of a truth commission?

        3) What have and/or can truth commissions achieve?

        4) What is the role of ritual and performance in this context?

    2. Reading 53 items
      1. Narrative Inequality in the TRC Hearings: On the Hearability of Hidden Transcripts - J. Blommaert, M. Bock, K. McCormick 2006

        Article further reading Warwick doesn’t have access to this article. You can try requesting this from another library by clicking the online resource button.

      2. A Country Unmasked - A. Boraine 2000

        Book further reading

      3. Kenya’s Search for Truth and Justice: The Role of Civil Society. - Lydiah Kemunto Bosire, Gabrielle Lynch, 2014

        Article further reading

      4. Performing South Africa's Truth Commission: Stages of Transition - C. Cole c2010

        Book further reading