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  1. General Information 8 items
    1. Module tutor:          

      Guy Longworth        S2.53              g.h.longworth@warwick.ac.uk

    2. Introduction

      What is logic about?  According to Mark Sainsbury, ''Logic ... aims to say what reasons are good reasons'' (Sainsbury 1991: 5–6). In this module we investigate how logic goes about doing that, by considering some foundational questions that arise concerning the pursuit of logic so understood. In particular, we will aim to consider the following questions: (1) How should we understand the relation of logical consequence, if it is to illuminate the nature of good reasons? (2) How should we understand truth as it functions within logic? (3) How should we deal with some paradoxes that appear to afflict our ordinary understanding of truth, in particular the liar paradox? (4) How should we deal with some paradoxes that appear to arise when we attempt to apply logic to ordinary thought or language, in particular the Sorites paradox?  

    3. Preliminary syllabus (subject to possible amendment)

      1. Logical consequence: proof-theoretic approaches; model-theoretic approaches; Tarski on logical consequence; logical vs. non-logical constants. 

      2. Truth: relations between logical consequence and truth; truth-bearers; minimalism about truth.

      3. Truth and Paradox: the liar paradox; the liar and revisions to classical logic; the liar and minimalism about truth.

      4. Vagueness: the Sorites paradox; vagueness and non-classical logics; epistemic theories of vagueness. 

    4. Objectives

      At the end of the module:

      1. You should possess knowledge of some recent developments in the philosophy of logic, sufficient to understand debates in this area.

      2. You should possess an understanding of both the key concepts and the analytical skills necessary to engage in creative and critical analysis of the central arguments that we consider.

      3. You should be practised at presenting arguments in a clear and concise fashion, both orally and in written form, on issues relating to the philosophy of logic.

      4. You should have exercised the ability to critically relate your understanding to everyday conceptions of the key concepts involved. 

    5. Requirements

      Students are required to attend all lectures (2 per week) and seminars (1 per week) and to submit one assessed essay and to prepare one or more seminar presentations during the term.

    6. Seminars

      Each seminar will involve presentation of a key reading by 1-3 members of the seminar group followed by group discussion. All members of the seminar group must have done the reading in preparation for the seminar. The seminar schedule will be distributed in the first seminar (week 2).

    7. Course Essays

      You are required to prepare one essay during the course of this module. It counts for 15% of the assessment for this module. Writing the essay is part of your learning experience. Try to write something that helps you understand the topic. Essays should be submitted via the department online essay submission portal. The essay can form the basis for your longer (2,500 word) 85% assessed essay.

    8. Some general guidelines for writing essays: 

      1. Adequate preparation for the essay will normally require reading

      4–5 journal papers or book chapters.  

      2. Essays should be 1500 words long.

      3. Be sure to state your main thesis (or theses) clearly in the first paragraph.

      4. Last paragraph: restate the main thesis, summarise the way in which you have argued for it, and indicate any outstanding problems.

      5. Don't assume that your reader knows what you are writing about: explain the concepts you use and spell out the argument. 

      6. Read through your essay carefully before handing it in.

       

       

      (Note that similar guidelines apply to seminar presentations, though presentations should be based only on the assigned reading and should be shorter, so that they can be presented in less than 15 minutes.)

  2. Introductory Books 4 items
    1. Philosophy of logics - Susan Haack 1978

      Book further reading

    2. Philosophy of logic - W. V. Quine 1986

      Book further reading

    3. Thinking about logic: an introduction to the philosophy of logic - Stephen Read 1995

      Book further reading

    4. Logical forms: an introduction to philosophical logic - R. M. Sainsbury 2001

      Book further reading

  3. Useful Collections/Handbooks 11 items
    1. Truth - Simon Blackburn, Keith Simmons 1999

      Book further reading

    2. Cuts and clouds: vagueness, its nature, and its logic - Richard Dietz, Sebastiano Moruzzi 2009 (electronic resource)

      Book further reading

    3. A philosophical companion to first-order logic - R. I. G. Hughes c1993

      Book further reading

    4. Philosophy of logic: an anthology - Dale Jacquette 2002

      Book further reading

    5. The Oxford handbook of philosophy of mathematics and logic - Stewart Shapiro 2007 (electronic resource)

      Book further reading

    6. Vagueness: a reader - Rosanna Keefe, Peter Smith c1999, c1997

      Book further reading

    7. Philosophical logic - P. F. Strawson 1967

      Book further reading

    8. New essays on Tarski and philosophy - Douglas Patterson 2008

      Book further reading

    9. Philosophical logic - P. F. Strawson 1967

      Book further reading

  4. Specialist Books 15 items
    1. The concept of logical consequence - John Etchemendy 1990

      Book further reading

    2. Saving truth from paradox - Hartry H. Field 2008 (electronic resource)

      Book further reading

    3. Truth - Paul Horwich 1998

      Book further reading

    4. Truth - Paul Horwich 1998

      Book further reading

    5. Understanding truth - Scott Soames 1999

      Book further reading

    6. Understanding truth - Scott Soames 1999

      Book further reading

    7. Vagueness - Timothy Williamson 1994

      Book further reading

    8. Truth - Paul Horwich 1998

      Book further reading

    9. Conceptions of truth - Wolfgang Künne 2005

      Book further reading

    10. Truth and paradox: solving the riddles - Tim Maudlin 2004 (electronic resource)

      Book further reading

    11. Understanding truth - Scott Soames 1999

      Book further reading

    12. Vagueness in context - Stewart Shapiro 2006 (electronic resource)

      Book further reading

    13. Vagueness - Timothy Williamson 1994

      Book further reading

  5. Note 1 item
    1. Writing an essay may involve researching some issues that are not covered in lectures.  Before you write an essay you should always read (and probably take notes on) at least four or five of the papers in the References section below. You might also want to make use of the texts listed above, and also to follow up references contained in texts from this list.

  6. Topic 1: Logical Consequence 19 items
    1. Essay Question 1

      Can we account for logical consequence in terms of provability? 

    2. Essay Question 2

      Can we account for logical consequence in term of truth in a model?

    3. Introductory articles 5 items
      1. Logical Constants - MacFarlane, John

        Webpage recommended

      2. Logical forms: an introduction to philosophical logic - R. M. Sainsbury 1991

        Book further reading Chapter 1

      3. The Oxford handbook of philosophy of mathematics and logic - Stewart Shapiro 2007 (electronic resource)

        Book further reading Shapiro, S (2007) ‘Logical Consequence, Proof Theory, and Model Theory

      4. Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy - Edward Craig, Routledge (Firm) 1998

        Book further reading Smiley, Timothy (1998), ‘Consequence, conceptions of '

    4. Further Reading 12 items
      1. Prior Analytics - Aristotle

        Article further reading translated by A.J.Jenkinson Bk. 1 §§1 - 7

      2. Tonk, Plonk and Plink - Nuel D. Belnap 1962

        Article recommended

      3. The concept of logical consequence - John Etchemendy 1990

        Book further reading

      4. New essays on Tarski and philosophy - Douglas Patterson 2008

        Book recommended Please read: 'Reflections on Consequence' by John Etchemendy. (Only sections 1-2 are essential)

      5. The Concept of Logical Consequence - William H. Hanson 1997

        Article further reading

      6. Philosophy of logic - W. V. Quine 1986

        Book further reading Chapters 1,2 and 4

      7. The Oxford handbook of philosophy of mathematics and logic - Stewart Shapiro 2005

        Book further reading Prawitz, D. (2005), ‘Logical Consequence: A Constructivist View'

      8. The Runabout Inference-Ticket - A. N. Prior 1960

        Article recommended reprinted in Strawson ed 'Philosophical Logic' ( the next bookmarked item )

      9. Thinking about logic: an introduction to the philosophy of logic - Stephen Read 1995

        Book further reading Chapter 2

      10. Logic, semantics, metamathematics: papers from 1923 to 1938 - Alfred Tarski, John Corcoran c1983

        Book recommended Tarski, A. (1965), ‘On the Concept of Logical Consequence'

      11. A philosophical companion to first-order logic - R. I. G. Hughes c1993

        Book recommended Tarski, A. (1993) ‘Truth and Proof'

      12. What are logical notions? - Alfred Tarski, John Corcoran 1986

        Article recommended

  7. Topic 2: Truth 21 items
    1. Essay question 3 10 items
      What are the fundamental bearers of the property of truth?
      1. Philosophy of logic: an anthology - Dale Jacquette 2002

        Book recommended Bealer, G (1998 ) 'Propositions'

      2. Philosophical essays - Richard Cartwright c1987

        Book further reading Cartwright, R (1987) 'Propositions'. Originally published in R.J.Butler, ed., 'Analytical Philosophy' , 1st series, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1962 ( bookmarked below)

      3. Analytical philosophy - R. J. Butler 1962

        Book further reading 'Propositions'

      4. The Folly of Trying to Define Truth - Donald Davidson 1996

        Article further reading reprinted in Blackburn and Simmons (eds) 'Truth'

      5. Truth - Simon Blackburn, Keith Simmons 1999

        Book further reading Davidson, D. (1996) 'The Folly of Trying to Define Truth' and Dummett, M. A. E (1999) 'Of what kind of thing is truth a property?'

      6. A philosophical companion to first-order logic - R. I. G. Hughes c1993

        Book recommended Grandy, Richard (1993) 'What do those 'Q's and 'R's stand for?'

      7. Philosophy of logics - Susan Haack 1978

        Book further reading Chapter 6

      8. Truth - Paul Horwich 1998

        Book further reading

      9. Philosophy of logic - W. V. Quine 1986

        Book recommended Chapter 1

      10. Understanding truth - Scott Soames 1999

        Book further reading Chapter 1

    2. Essay Question 4 11 items
      What is minimalism about truth? Is it defensible?
      1. Truth - Simon Blackburn, Keith Simmons 1999

        Book further reading 'Introduction'

      2. The Folly of Trying to Define Truth - Donald Davidson 1996

        Article further reading Reprinted in Blackburn and Simmons 'Truth'

      3. Truth - Simon Blackburn, Keith Simmons 1999

        Book recommended Dummett, M.A.E (1999) 'Of what kind of thing is truth?'

      4. Philosophy of logics - Susan Haack 1978

        Book further reading Chapter 7

      5. Truth - Paul Horwich 1998

        Book further reading

      6. Truth - Simon Blackburn, Keith Simmons 1999

        Book recommended Gupta,A (1993) 'A Critique of Deflationism' Also to be found in Philosophical Topics Vol.21(2) Spring 1993 pp.57-81

      7. Truth - Simon Blackburn, Keith Simmons 1999

        Book recommended Horwich,P (1999) 'The minimalist conception of truth'

      8. Philosophy of logic - W. V. Quine 1986

        Book further reading Chapters 1 and 3

      9. Understanding truth - Scott Soames 1999

        Book further reading Chapter 8

      10. Logic, semantics, metamathematics: papers from 1923 to 1938 - Alfred Tarski, John Corcoran c1983

        Book further reading Tarski, A (1944) 'The semantic conception of truth'

      11. Truth - Simon Blackburn, Keith Simmons 1999

        Book recommended Wright, C (1999) 'Truth: A Traditional Debate Reviewed'

  8. Topic 3: Truth and Paradox 20 items
    1. Essay questions 1 item
      1. Essay Question 5 

        Critically assess Tarski's proposed solution to the liar papadox

        Essay Question 6 

        What is the liar paradox? Critically assess ONE published response to the liar paradox?

        Essay question 7  

        What special problems arise for the minimalist about truth in dealing with the liar paradox? How, if at all, should they respond?

    2. Some technical background 2 items
      1. Computability and logic - George Boolos, John P. Burgess, Richard C. Jeffrey 2007

        Book further reading Chapters 2 and 15

      2. Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy - Edward Craig, Routledge (Firm) 1998

        Book further reading Deltlefsen, M (1998) 'Godel's Theorems'

    3. Introductory 4 items
      1. Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy - Edward Craig, Routledge (Firm) 1998

        Book further reading McGee, V. (1999) 'Semantic Paradoxes and Theories of Truth'

      2. Thinking about logic: an introduction to the philosophy of logic - Stephen Read 1995

        Book further reading

      3. Paradoxes - R. M. Sainsbury c2009

        Book recommended Chapters 5 and 6

      4. The ways of paradox, and other essays - W. V. Quine 1976

        Book further reading Quine.W.V. (1976) 'The ways of paradox'

    4. Main Reading 13 items
      1. The Liar: an essay on truth and circularity - Jon Barwise, John Etchemendy 1987

        Book recommended You are not expected to understand the technical parts of this book. Read Chapters 1-3 and the reviews mentioned here.

      2. Curry's Paradox - Beall, Jc

        Webpage further reading

      3. Deflationism and paradox 2008

        Book further reading

      4. Truth - Simon Blackburn, Keith Simmons 1999

        Book recommended 'Introduction'

      5. Truth - Paul Horwich 1998

        Book further reading

      6. Outline of a Theory of Truth - S Kripke 1975

        Article recommended Reprinted in Jacquette ed 'Philosophy of Logic: An Anthology' (You are not expected to follow the technical parts of this paper)

      7. Truth and paradox: solving the riddles - Tim Maudlin 2004 (electronic resource)

        Book further reading

      8. Truth, vagueness, and paradox: an essay on the logic of truth - Vann McGee 1991

        Book further reading Chapters 3 and 4 ; technical

      9. Understanding truth - Scott Soames 1999

        Book further reading chapters 2-6

      10. Understanding truth - Scott Soames 1999

        Book further reading chapters 2-6

      11. Logic, semantics, metamathematics: papers from 1923 to 1938 - Alfred Tarski, John Corcoran c1983

        Book recommended Tarski, A (1944) 'The semantic conception of truth'

      12. Logic, semantics, metamathematics: papers from 1923 to 1938 - Alfred Tarski, John Corcoran c1983

        Book further reading Tarski, A (1931) 'The concept of truth in formalized languages'

  9. Topic 4: Vagueness 10 items
    1. Essay questions 1 item
      1. Essay Question 8 

        What is vagueness? How, if at all, should we revise logic in order to accommodate it?

        Essay question 9  

        Critically assess a supervaluationist treatment of vagueness.

        Essay Question 10 

        Critically assess an epistemicist treatment of vagueness.

         

    2. Introductory Reading 3 items
      1. Thinking about logic: an introduction to the philosophy of logic - Stephen Read 1995

        Book further reading Chapter 7

      2. Paradoxes - R. M. Sainsbury c2009

        Book recommended Chapter 2

      3. A companion to the philosophy of language - Bob Hale 1997

        Book further reading Sainsbury, R M and Williamson, T (1998) 'Vagueness'

    3. Further Reading 5 items
      1. Deviant logic, fuzzy logic: beyond the formalism - Susan Haack, Susan Haack 1996

        Book further reading Chapter 6

      2. Vagueness: a reader - Rosanna Keefe, Peter Smith c1999, c1997

        Book further reading For supervaluationism, the paper by Kit Fine is essential reading.

      3. Review: Vagueness, Ignorance, and Margin for Error - Review by: R. M. Sainsbury 1995

        Article further reading A useful critique of epistemicism

      4. Vagueness - Sorensen, Roy

        Article further reading

      5. Vagueness - Timothy Williamson 1994

        Book further reading For epistemicism, see especially chs. 7 and 8 ; useful discussions of other approaches to vagueness may be found elsewhere in this book.

    4. A note on plagiarism 1 item
      1. Plagiarism is a serious offence. Your work will be run through plagiarism detection software. A tutor who finds plagiarism in an essay will report the matter to the department's plagiarism panel, who will decide on an appropriate penalty, which may result in a mark of zero.

        The relevant regulations and guidelines are posted on the Departmental Examination pages. If in doubt always seek the advice of your module tutor or personal tutor.

         

         

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